The project is structured in four Work Packages.

Experiments and initial conditions

Objective: To perform quantitative flow measurements characterising the chain of events from in-nozzle flow down to fuel vaporisation. In particular, the following experiments will be performed:

  • X-ray tomography of the three-dimensional cavitating flow in a single orifice-type nozzle
  • Ballistic imaging of single/chain bubble-collapse induced atomisation
  • High-speed visualisation of textural atomisation processes from the cavitating single-orifice type nozzle
  • High-speed visualisation of residual air mixing during opening and closing in transparent multi-hole fuel injectors
  • Fuel-air evaporation and mixing processes utilising the same fuel injectors


  • ESR1: Mr Milad Heidari Koochi (CITY)
  • ESR2: Mr Jiayi Zhou (CHALMERS)
  • ESR4: Mr Eduardo Gomez Santos (DELPHI)

DNS on primary/secondary atomisation

Objective: To perform numerical experiments using DNS aiming to derive closure models suitable for implementation to the Σ-Υ LES-PDF model. The following cases will be simulated:
  • Single/chain bubble-collapse induced atomisation
  • Flash evaporation of cryogenic liquids utilised with rocket engine injectors
  • Ligament characterisation from air blast atomizers utilised with gas turbines
  • Secondary atomisation of non-evaporating droplet clusters and
  • Secondary atomisation of evaporating droplet clusters
  • ESR5: Mr Nikos Bempedelis (UCL)
  • ESR6: Mr Daniel Dias Loureiro (USTUTT)
  • ESR7: Mr Anirudh Asuri Mukundan (CNRS-CORIA)
  • ESR8: Mr Dionisis Stefanitsis (CERTH)
  • ESR9: Mr Stavros Fostiropoulos (CERTH)

Holistic LES model development

Objective: To develop/extend the Σ-Υ LES-PDF approach to include surface area generation/destruction closure models accounting for in-nozzle cavitation and turbulence effects on primary atomisation.


  • ESR10: Mr Aqeel Ahmed (CNRS)
  • ESR11: Ms Georgia Nykteri (CITY)
  • ESR12: Mr Giovanni Tretola (IMPERIAL)
  • ESR13: Mr Marco Fistler (CHALMERS)
  • ESR14: Mr Surya Peravali (CITY)
  • ESR15: Mr Yasir Nazeer (MHPS)

Industrial applications

Objective: To validate and apply the developed model to cases of industrial interest; these will include:

  • Diesel injectors,
  • Air-blast atomisers
  • Orifice-type injectors utilised with cryogenic fluids for rocket engines,
  • Orifice-type nozzles utilised with oil burners


  • All ESRs